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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 33  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 20-24

Prevalence of overt and subclinical thyroid dysfunction among Iraqi population in Baghdad city

1 National Diabetes Center, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq
2 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, University of Al-Mustansiriyah, Baghdad, Iraq

Correspondence Address:
Noor Thair Tahir
National Diabetes Center, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/IRJCM.IRJCM_3_20

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Background: Thyroid hormones control most of the body's metabolic processes; T3 and T4 from the thyroid gland and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pituitary gland. Any defect in these hormones may have a serious clinical impact on different body organs. Objective: This study focus on the prevalence of thyroid diseases (subclinical and overt) in the Iraqi population and the possibility of linking their incidence and progression to specific factors. Patients and Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted in the National Diabetes Center for Treatment and Research/Mustansiriyah University in Al-Karkh side from Baghdad/Iraq. Thousand and eight hundred patients, both gender (males and females) from different age groups (12–62 years), have been involved for 6 months. This study was measured serum TSH, thyroxin hormone (T4), and triiodothyroxin hormone (T3). Patients were categorized according to their thyroid status at the time of testing based on both the traditional definitions of thyroid dysfunction and using TSH and T4 levels of subclinical hyper- and hypothyroidism, overt hyper- and hypothyroidism. Results: Of 1800 cases collected over 6 months, 3.2% were overt hypothyroid (22.4% males and 77.6% females) (P < 0.0001). Moreover, 14.1% were subclinical hypothyroid cases (19.7% males and 80.3% females) (P < 0.0001). Overt hyperthyroid cases represent 3% (27.8% in male and 72.2% in females) (P < 0.0001). Subclinical hyperthyroid cases were 4% (18.3% in male and 81.7% in females) (P < 0.0001). Distribution of thyroid status (euthyroid, subclinical, and overt thyroid) in females significantly higher than in males (75.7%, 6.2%, and 18.1% respectively, P < 0.0001). Subclinical hypo- and hyperthyroid appeared in the age group (32–51 years) was significantly higher than other studied ages (P < 0.05), and overt hyperthyroid appeared in the age group (42–51 years) higher than other age of studied groups (P < 0.05), while overt hypothyroid was distributed equally in all age groups (P > 0.05). Less than ten percent of total patients were taking thyroid medication for hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Subclinical and overt thyroid cases received treatments were (47.4% and 42.9%, respectively). Treated old subjects >52 years represent about (17.6%) from the total patients. Conclusion: The majority of thyroid problems occur in adult age (32–50) and in females. Understanding the prevalence and risk factors of subclinical thyroid disease could be a help to identify the patients for screening and follow-up. Treatment recommendations must base on measuring thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations and underlying comorbidities.

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